Naiva – nazivana i naivnom umjetnošću, umjetnošću naivnih, primitivnom umjetnošću, umjetnošću modernih primitiva itd. – posebni je segment umjetnosti XX. stoljeća. To je izdvojena skupina umjetnički neškolovanih slikara i kipara sred velikog broja izraza i struja moderne umjetnosti. Od ostalih samouka, amatera i narodnih, pučkih umjetnika, naivi se razlikuju uvijek prepoznatljivim osobnim stilom i poetičkom singularnošću, dakle, umjetničkom vrsnoćom. Naiva je pojam – kao što su i pojmovi ekspresionizam, kubizam, astratizam, dadaizam, nadrealizam itd. – kojim objedinjujemo neke izdvojene svjetove modernoga umjetničkog stvaralaštva.

U Hrvatskoj se pod pojmom naiva podrazumijeva stvaralaštvo umjetnika koji su pristigli iz amaterizma, više ili manje samouka, dakle autora koji likovnu naobrazbu nisu stjecali sustavnim obrazovanjem na umjetničkim školama i akademijama, ali ih to nije spriječilo da ostvare vlastiti stil i razinu umjetnosti. Prepoznatljivo individualni stil i uvijek prisutna individualna poetika naivu jasno diferenciraju od brojnih primjera amaterizama i diletantizama, “nedjeljnih” i “pučkih” slikara i kipara, kao i ostale nerazlučene množine samoukih. Kako umjetnici naive ne poznaju u potpunosti akademsku konstrukciju djela, to su u njih stalno prisutni stanoviti “pomaci” u proporcijama i perspektivi, kao što su očite i brojne “nelogičnosti” oblika i prostora. Pozitivne valorizacije takvih svojstava mogle su se prihvatiti kao izraz slobodne stvaralačke imaginacije tek nakon iskustava simbolizma, ekspresionizma, kubizma, nadrealizma i ostalih pokreta i fenomena Moderne. Time se jasno naznačuje da je i naiva izraz XX. stoljeća i sukladna modernom senzibilitetu.

Naiva je posljedica i dokaz demokratizacije kako općedruštvenih odnosa tako i umjetničkog stvaralaštva. Ona jasno pokazuje da se svatko ima pravo umjetnički izražavati i da umjetničke škole same po sebi nisu jamstvo umjetničke vrijednosti, jer se umjetnost može ostvarivati i bez njih. U naivi je emotivnost pretpostavljena racionalizmu i intelektualnim spekulacijama, u većini slučajeva naiva izražava radost življenja i pobjedu Nade. Tu otkrivamo “zaboravljenu prirodu” i “minulo djetinjstvo”, priče i snove, živu imaginaciju i jednostavne ljudske zamišljaje, zaboravljeno “čuđenje nad svijetom” i veselje nad motivima. No, naiva nije samo arkadijska umjetnost i idila, ona ne iskazuje samo ufanje i slavljenje života, ima u njoj i muklih kazivanja, tamnih akorda i ktonskog, u naivi srećemo također tragično i simboličko, fantastiku i irealnost, nadrealne odnose, somnambulizam i nestvarnost, što znači da je sazdana od mnogih suprotnosti, kao i Život.

MGeneralic

The Naive – also called naive art, the art of the naives, primitive art, the art of the modern primitives and so on – is a distinct segment of the art of the 20th century. It is comprehends a discrete group of painters and sculptors untrained in the ways of art, among the limitless number of kinds of expressions and trends in modern art. The Naives are always distinguished from other self-taught, amateur, popular and vernacular artists by their identifiable artistic style and poetical singularity; by, then, their sheer artistic excellence. The Naive is a concept – just like the concepts of Expressionism, Cubism, Abstractionism, Dadaism and the Surreal and so on – that we use to interrelate some of the separate worlds of modern artistic creativity.

In Croatia the concept of the Naive assumes the work of artists who arrived from amateurism, people who are more or less self-taught, painters and sculptors who did not obtain their education by systematic training at art schools and academies, which did not, however, prevent them from creating their own style, achieving their own level of art. An identifiably individual style and an individual poetics that is always there pick the Naive out quite clearly from the various examples of amateurism and dilettantism, from “Sunday” and “vernacular” painters and sculptors, and from all the rest of the undifferentiated mass of the self-taught. Since the artists of the Naive do not know how to construct a work according to the lessons of the academies, there are always certain departures in their works in proportions and perspective, and numerous “illogicalities in form and space. A positive evaluation of such characteristics, as the expression of the free creative imagination, could come into being only after Symbolism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and the other movements and phenomena of the Modern Movement had already been experienced. This clearly shows that the Naive is also a 20th century form of expression and is in key with the modern sensibility.

The Naive is the consequence and proof of democratisation in both the general relations in society and in artistic creation. It clearly shows that everyone has the right to express himself or herself in art and that schools of art are in themselves no guarantee of artistic value, because art can be created even without them. In the Naive, emotion counts more than reason and intellectual speculations. In the majority of cases, the Naive expresses the joy of life and the victory of hope. Here we can discover “the forgotten nature” and “lost childhood”, stories and dreams, a vital imagination and simple human inventions, the forgotten “wonder at the world” and the ability to rejoice in motif. But the Naive is not just an Arcadian art and idyll, it does not express only trust in and celebration of life; there are some sorry tales in it too, some dark and chthonic accords; in the Naive we can also come across the tragic and the symbolic, the fantastic and the irreal, surreal relationships, somnambulism and unreality, which all means that it is made up of a hundred opposites, just like Life.

Generalic

Article taken from The Croatian Museum of Naive Art.
Članak preuzet od Hrvatskog muzeja naivne umjetnosti.

www.naiva.hr

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